The kinocardiograph (KCG) is an unobtrusive device, consisting of a chest sensor, which records local thoracic vibrations produced in result of cardiac contraction and ejection of blood into the great vessels [seismocardiography (SCG)], and a lower back sensor, which records micromovements of the body in reaction to blood flowing through the vasculature [ballistocardiography (BCG)]. SCG and BCG signals are translated to the integral of cardiac kinetic energy (iK) and cardiac maximum power (Pmax), which might be promising metrics for future telemonitoring purposes in heart failure (HF). As a first step of validation, this study aimed to determine whether iK and Pmax are responsive to exercise-induced changes in the haemodynamic load of the heart in HF patients.
Methods and results
Fifteen patients with stable HF with reduced ejection fraction performed a submaximal exercise protocol. KCG and cardiac ultrasound measurements were obtained both at rest and at submaximal exercise. BCG iK over the cardiac cycle (CC) increased significantly (0.0026 ± 0.0017 to 0.0052 ± 0.0061 mJ.s.; P = 0.01) during exercise, in contrast to a non-significant increase in SCG iK CC. BCG Pmax CC increased significantly (0.92 ± 0.89 to 2.03 ± 1.95 mJ/s; P = 0.02), in contrast to a non-significant increase in SCG Pmax CC. When analysing the systolic phase of the CC, similar patterns were found. Cardiac output (CO) ratio (i.e. CO exercise/CO rest) showed a moderate, significant correlation with BCG Pmax CC ratio (r = +0.65; P = 0.008) and with SCG Pmax CC ratio (r = +0.54; P = 0.04).
iK and Pmax measured with the KCG, preferentially using BCG, are responsive to changes in the haemodynamic load of the heart in HF patients. The combination of the BCG and SCG sensor might be of added value to fully understand changes in haemodynamics and to discriminate between an HF patient and a healthy individual.
The kinocardiograph for assessment of changes in haemodynamic load in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
Cyrille Herkert, Pierre-François Migeotte, Amin Hossein, Rudolph Ferdinand Spee, Hareld Marijn Clemens Kemps.
ESC Heart Fail. 2021 Dec; 8(6): 4925–4932.